Developing nondrug antimicrobial and antibacterial treatment techniques are necessary because of the emergence of antibiotic resistance worldwide. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and electromagnetic therapy (EMFT) are two examples of these approaches.
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is a novel and promising technique that involves the simultaneous presence of visible light, oxygen and a photosensitizer (PS). It can be applied for eradicating pathogenic microorganisms such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. Moreover, electric fields, magnetic fields and pulsed EMFs (PEMFs) are common approaches showing promising antimicrobial effects.